Nutrition

The Cuban Cardio Highs Medication

Back

Important information

  • MH drug classification 
  • Class A= Athletic performance enhancer
  • Class B=Medicine must have
  • Class C= Certified brain trainer
  • Unclassified= might cure 
  • Do not use any medication other over the counter cough, cold, allergy, or pain medication without first asking your doctor or pharmacist. side effect contained in many combination medicines. If you use certain products together you may accidentally use too much . Read the label of any other medicine you are using. Avoid drinking alcohol while taking any medication. Alcohol may increase your risk of liver damage while taking any medication.
Array

Co-enzyme Q10

  • Is a naturally occurring nutrient that is present in all cells and highly concentrated in the energy intensive cells of the heart. Often referred to as the 'biochemical spark plug' due to its essential role in the production of energy.
  • CoQ10 is naturally found in every cell of the body. It is found in especially high levels in the heart and skeletal muscles and other tissues with high energy requirements. As we age, production of CoQ10 in the body declines, making dietary intake more important
  • Coenzyme Q10, also known as ubiquinone, ubidecarenone, coenzyme Q, and abbreviated at time, CoQ, or Q10 is a benzoquinone, where Q refers to the quinone chemical group, and 10 refers to the number of isoprenyl chemical subunits in its tail
  • This oil soluble, vitamin like substance is present in most eukaryotic cells, primarily in the mitochondria. It is a component of the electron transport chain and participates in aerobic cellular respiration, generating energy in the form of ATP. 95% of the human body’s energy is generated this way.Therefore, those organs with the highest energy requirements such as the heart, liver and kidney have the highest CoQ10 concentrations.There are three redox states of CoQ10: fully oxidized (ubiquinone), semiquinone (ubisemiquinone), and fully reduced (ubiquinol). The capacity of this molecule to exist in a completely oxidized form and a completely reduced form enables it to perform its functions in the electron transport chain, and as an antioxidant, respectively
Array

Reishi

  • The Reishi Mushroom Is Often Referred To As The Mushroom Of Immortality

The Reishi Mushroom has been written about for centuries in ancient Chinese herbal text, Reishi Mushroom was not only recognized as being in the superior class of herbs, but also at the top of its class becoming the most treasured and sought after herb of all time. It is not a mystery why Reishi Mushroom has this reputation, even centuries ago, the powerful benefits of this herb were undeniable, and over the past couple hundred years, further research and science has further supported this idea. The Reishi Mushroom also known as (Ling Zhi, Red Reishi or Ganoderma Lucidum) is often referred to as the mushroom of immortality. Reishi Mushroom is revered in Asia where it has been used in TCM for over 2000 years. Because of Reishi Mushrooms presumed health benefits and apparent absence of side-effects, it has attained a reputation as the ultimate longevity herb. Modern research has focused on the use of Reishi Mushroom for immune support and liver health. Red Reishi Mushroom is one of the most scientifically researched herbs on the planet. Research has shown that Reishi Mushroom extracts may help oxygenate the blood, tonify the liver, improve circulation, relieve stress, promote healthy sleep and much more.

  • Very important Anyone with illness, kidney problems, blood in urine, on medications as well as pregnant or lactating women, should always consults their doctor before use. Not intended for use by persons under the age of 18. Keep out of reach of children.
Array

Insulin

  •  Insulin is an important hormone allows your body to use sugar (glucose)

Insulin is a hormone made by the pancreas that allows your body to use sugar (glucose) from carbohydrates in the food that you eat for energy or to store glucose for future use. Insulin helps keeps your blood sugar level from getting too high (hyperglycemia) or too low (hypoglycemia). The cells in your body need sugar for energy. However, sugar cannot go into most of your cells directly. After you eat food and your blood sugar level rises, cells in your pancreas (known as beta cells) are signaled to release insulin into your bloodstream.

  • Insulin then attaches to and signals cells to absorb sugar from the bloodstream.
  • Insulin is often described as a key, which unlocks the cell to allow sugar to enter the cell and be used for energy.
  • Inside the pancreas, beta cells make the hormone insulin. With each meal, beta cells release insulin to help the body use or store the glucose it gets from food.
  • Insulin is prescribed to people with type 1 diabetes. This is because type 1 diabetes destroys beta cells in the pancreas, meaning that the body can no longer produce insulin.
  • People with type 2 diabetes make insulin, but their bodies don’t respond well to it. Some people with type 2 diabetes may take pills or insulin shots to help their bodies use glucose for energy.
Array

Garlic

Each Garlic tablet contains mg of Garlic Extract which provides of standardised Allicin. Allicin, created when garlic is crushed, is one of the key active principles of garlic. This deodourised garlic tablet is specially enteric coated for absorption lower in the digestive system which helps with better absorption of Allicin and a reduced garlic taste.

Garlic is one of the most widely used and oldest botanicals. Garlic may help contribute to normal immune function and may also contribute to the maintenance of normal heart health and circulation. After extraction, each batch of garlic used in pills  is analysed, to ensure it meets  highest standards of quality control

  •  is an herb. It is best known as a flavoring for food. But over the years, garlic has been used as a medicine to prevent or treat a wide range of diseases and conditions. The fresh clove or supplements made from the clove are used for medicine.
  • Garlic is used for many conditions related to the heart and blood system. These conditions include high blood pressure, high cholesterol, coronary heart disease, heart attack, and “hardening of the arteries” (atherosclerosis). Some of these uses are supported by science. Garlic actually may be effective in slowing the development of atherosclerosis and seems to be able to modestly reduce blood pressure.
  • Some people use garlic to prevent colon cancer, rectal cancer, stomach cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, and lung cancer. It is also used to treat prostate cancer and bladder cancer.
  • Garlic has been tried for treating an enlarged prostate (benign prostatic hyperplasia; BPH), diabetes, osteoarthritis, hayfever (allergic rhinitis), traveler's diarrhea, high blood pressure late in pregnancy (pre-eclampsia), cold and flu. It is also used for building the immune system, preventing tick bites, and preventing and treating bacterial and fungal infections.
  • Other uses include treatment of fever, coughs, headache, stomach ache, sinus congestion, gout, rheumatism, hemorrhoids, asthma, bronchitis, shortness of breath, low blood pressure, low blood sugar, high blood sugar, and snakebites. It is also used for fighting stress and fatigue, and maintaining healthy liver function.
  • Some people apply garlic oil to their skin to treat fungal infections, warts, and corns. There is some evidence supporting the topical use of garlic for fungal infections like ringworm, jock itch, and athlete’s foot; but the effectiveness of garlic against warts and corns is still uncertain.
  • While garlic is a common flavoring in food, some scientists have suggested that it might have a role as a food additive to prevent food poisoning. There is some evidence that fresh garlic, but not aged garlic, can kill certain bacteria such as E. coli, antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella enteritidis in the laboratory.
Array

Zinc

  • Zinc is trace mineral with a number of roles in body functions
  • Zinc contributes to a number of roles in the body. Included in these are; a contribution to the normal function of the immune system and macronutrient metabolism, a contribution to the maintenance of normal testosterone levels in blood and normal vision and the maintenance of normal skin,hair,nails and normal bones. It also contributes to normal cognitive function and helps protect cells from oxidative stress.
  • Zinc is suitable as an addition to any supplement regime as it contributes to a number of physiological bodily functions. A number of our customers purchase this along with products in Muscle and Strength and Sports Performance.
  • Key Benefits Essential mineral for muscle grow and recovery.Easily absorbed source. Can aid normal immune function
Array

Elvanse =B

  • Have a great success reducing binge eating if you diet is often derailed by the act of carbicide.
  • Elvance is indicated as part of a comprehensive treatment programme for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children aged 6 years of age and over when response to previous methylphenidate treatment is considered clinically inadequate. ELVANSE is not indicated in all children with ADHD and the decision to use the drug must be based on a very thorough assessment of the severity and chronicity of the symptoms in relation to the age and potential for abuse, misuse or diversion. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children aged six years and over.
  • This medicine is used as part of a comprehensive treatment programme for ADHD that includes psychotherapy and behavioural management techniques. It is only used  for whom these techniques have proved to be insufficient on their own. This medicine will only be used under the supervision of a specialist in disorders, and only after the severity of the symptoms has been thoroughly assessed.
  • The medicine can be continued into adolescence and adulthood if ADHD symptoms continue and you are still benefiting from the medicine.
Array

Whey Protein

Whey protein is a mixture of globular proteins isolated from whey, the liquid material created as a by product of cheese production. Whey protein is commonly marketed and ingested as a dietary supplement, and various health claims have been attributed to it in the alternative medicine community.

The use of whey protein as a source of amino acids and its effect on reducing the risks of diseases such as heart disease, cancer and diabetes has been the focus of ongoing research as of 2007. Whey is an abundant source of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), which are used to stimulate protein synthesis. When leucine is ingested in high amounts, such as with whey protein supplementation, there is greater stimulation of protein synthesis, which may speed recovery and adaptation progession exercise. As with other forms of protein, consumption of whey protein shortly after vigorous exercise can boost muscle hypertrophy.

  • Scientific evidence has shown that proteins high in essential amino acids (EAA), branched chain amino acids (BCAA), and particularly leucine (Leu) are associated with increased muscle protein synthesis, weight loss, body fat loss, and decreased plasma insulin and triglyceride profile. Whey has approximately three grams of leucine per serving and the threshold for optimal protein synthesis is three grams.
Array

Lutein

The used is a high quality extract standardised for anthocyanin content. may contribute to the maintenance of normal eye health through antioxidant and vascular effects. The anthocyanins may also contribute to normal blood circulation and the maintenance of normal retina function. This ideal combination is produce Powerful antioxidant protection for your eyes, the antioxidant protection for your eyes with powerful lutein supplement Lutein is the most abundant carotenoid in the macula of the eye, where it provides indispensable antioxidant protection against free radicals generated by the sun's ultraviolet rays. Swanson Super Potent Lutein softgels deliver 40mg of pure, all-natural, crystalline lutein and 1.72mg of zeaxanthin derived from marigolds. It's the highest quality source of supplemental lutein available for everyday eye health maintenance

Array

viagra

As well as erectile dysfunction, sildenafil citrate is also effective in the rare disease pulmonary arterial hypertension. It relaxes the arterial wall, leading to decreased pulmonary arterial resistance and pressure. This, in turn, reduces the workload of the right ventricle of the heart and improves symptoms of right sided heart failure. Because PDE5 is primarily distributed within the arterial wall smooth muscle of the lungs and penis, sildenafil acts selectively in both these areas without inducing vasodilation in other areas of the body. Its use is now standard treatment for erectile dysfunction including for those with diabetes mellitus

People on antidepressants may experience sexual dysfunction, either as a result of their illness or as a result of their treatment. A study concluded sildenafil improved sexual function in men in this situation, the same researchers concluded sildenafil improved sexual function in female patients on antidepressants, as well

Sildenafil may be useful for the prevention and treatment of high altitude pulmonary edema associated with altitude sickness such as that suffered by mountain climbers.

Sildenafil, sold as Viagra and other trade names, is a medication used to treat erectile dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Its use for sexual dysfunction in women is not clear.

Common side effects include headaches and heart burn, as well as flushed skin. Caution is advised in those who have cardiovascular disease. Rare but serious side effects include prolonged erections, which can lead to damage to the penis, and sudden-onset hearing loss. Sildenafil should not be taken by people who take nitrates such as nitroglycerin, as this may result in a severe and potentially fatal drop in blood pressure.

  • Viagra (sildenafil) relaxes muscles and increases blood flow to particular areas of the body.
  • Viagra is used to treat erectile dysfunction (impotence) in men. Another brand of sildenafil is Revatio, which is used to treat pulmonary arterial hypertension and improve exercise capacity in men and women.

Do not take Viagra while also taking Revatio, unless your doctor tells you to.

  • Important information, Some medicines can cause unwanted or dangerous effects when used with Viagra. Tell your doctor about all your current medicines, especially riociguat (Adempas).
  • Do not take Viagra if you are also using a nitrate drug for chest pain or heart problems, including nitroglycerin, isosorbide dinitrate, isosorbide mononitrate, and some recreational drugs such as poppers. Taking sildenafil with a nitrate medicine can cause a sudden and serious decrease in blood pressure.
  • Contact your doctor or seek emergency medical attention if your erection is painful or lasts longer than 4 hours. A prolonged erection (priapism) can damage the penis.
  • Stop using Viagra and get emergency medical help if you have sudden vision loss.

Array

Spirulina

Spirulina, a blue-green algae, consists of microscopic, corkscrew shaped filaments and is found in Africa and Asia, as well as in Central America. Free growing, spirulina lives in high-salt alkaline water in subtropical and tropical areas, sometimes dense enough to give the water a dark-green color. It is commercially grown in the US and has been proposed as the primary foodstuff to be cultivated during long term space missions because it withstands extreme conditions. Because few other algae grow in salty alkali water, contamination of open pond cultures of spirulina by other microorganisms is usually slight, with the alga growing as a relatively pure culture.

  • Spirulina has been described in literature since the 16th century. Spanish explorers observed the Aztecs harvesting a blue mud that probably consisted of spirulina. The mud, which was dried to form chips or flavored loaves, was obtained from Lake Texcoco in Mexico. Spirulina was similarly harvested by natives of the Sahara Desert, where it was known as dihe, approximately 10,000 km away.
  • Spirulina is sold as a health food or supplement. Diverse claims exist for its immune stimulation, cholesterol-lowering, antiviral, and anticancer effects; however, there is limited evidence to support these uses
  • Doses in clinical studies have ranged from 1 to 10 g/day 

Pregnancy nursing

  • Safety and effectiveness in pregnancy and lactation is unknown. Because of possible mercury and other heavy metal contamination, spirulina should be avoided during pregnancy.
  • Few reports of adverse reactions are available. However, spirulina associated liver toxicity and reactions from heavy metal contamination are possible.
  • Spirulina is considered nontoxic to humans at usual levels of consumption; however, information is limited.
Array

Ketamine

Ketamine is an anesthetic medication. is used to put you to sleep for surgery and to prevent pain and discomfort during certain medical tests or procedures. Ketamine may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide as anti depessant, Ketalar Psychological effects ranging from pleasant, dream like states to delirium have occurred as ketamine wears off. Be sure to have a responsible adult to monitor and assist you for up to 24 hours after you receive ketamine.

Array

L-Carnitine

  • For heart, brain, VO2 max, fat burning, healthy sperm
  • L-carnitine has been shown to support the heart and cardiovascular system, help athletes optimize their performance, help burn fat more easily, help rejuvenate our aging brains and even promote healthy sperm function.
  • L-carnitine is critical for energy production in every cell of your body. It carries fat, in the form of fatty acids, to the mitochondrial inner membrane where energy is produced. Without L-carnitine, the normal burning of fat cannot take place.
  • In the brain and nervous tissues, acetyl L-carnitine is important in energy production, but is more importantly a precursor to acetylcholine. This powerful neurotransmitter plays a vital role in maintaining healthy brain function, memory and mood as we age.

Health benefits of L-carnitine

  • Improve Cardiovascular
  • Congestive heart failure, irregular heart rhythms and peripheral vascular disease (poor circulation to the arms or legs) are all common consequences of cardiovascular disease. L-carnitine has been shown to support the cardiovascular system, even in the face of these consequences. 70% of the metabolic energy required by the heart is supplied by fatty acids. No other organ in the body has higher concentrations of L-carnitine.

Sports and muscle metabolism

  • During strenuous physical exercise, the body requires large amounts of glucose and fatty acids to produce energy. L-carnitine has been shown to reduce the respiratory quotient (RQ) in athletes. A lower RQ reflects more fatty acid burning and less glucose utilization. This glucose-sparing effect helps delay the onset of exhaustion and enhances performance. Improved performance has been confirmed by the improved VO2 Max (a measure of maximal aerobic capacity) of athletes using L-carnitine.
  • Results of a study on muscle soreness in athletes. It showed that L-carnitine tartrate, prior to high intensity exercise, is effective in assisting muscle recovery and reducing muscle soreness following exercise.

Fat metabolism and weight loss

  • Because of its vital role in fat metabolism, another obvious benefit of L-carnitine supplementation is in weight loss. Numerous animal and human studies have shown L-carnitine to promote muscle deposition instead of fat.

Brain health

  • Because of its unique chemical properties, acetyl L-carnitine (ALC) is able to cross into the brain easily, providing neuroprotective benefits. Besides aiding in fat metabolism, ALC directly stimulates the production of acetylcholine, a powerful neurotransmitter. Many current studies of L-carnitine and age related changes in memory or mood have shown L-carnitine to benefit or delay those changes.

Sperm motility

  • Infertility research has shown approximately 30% of cases to be directly related to the man alone, and not the woman. One study showed that 78% of men had improvement in sperm counts and motility with 3 grams of L-carnitine daily.

The best form of L-carnitine

  • L-carnitine can be found in many forms, including acetyl L-carnitine, L-carnitine tartrate, L-carnitine fumarate, and the most common form, L-carnitine base. The base form is ideal for liquid supplements, but in capsules or tablets, it can soak up water from the air and turn bad. Some large chemical companies have developed more stable forms that are ideal for capsules or tablets called L-carnitine tartrate and fumarate. The only form that can cross the blood-brain barrier is acetyl L-carnitine. It has found its unique use in "brain products."

How much do you need to take?

  • Most people who do not see results with L-carnitine supplements are probably not taking enough. Most of the scientific literature describes effective doses from 1 to 4 grams of L-carnitine. For brain mood benefits, studies suggest taking 1 to 3 grams of acetyl L-carnitine daily.
Array

Creatine

  • Now available in Lemon & Lime, Orange, Sour Apple and Raspberry Lemonade. amazing flavours, Berry blast and Tropical storm, that can be easily mixed as a perfect post workout drink.
  • Creatine Monohydrate is ideal for a broad range of athletes from bodybuilders through to sprinters, but most importantly those who want to improve their power, strength, speed and lean mass.
  • Creatine Monohydrate can act to increase physical performance in successive bursts of short term, high intensity exercise and is ideal for sports which require high intensity, explosive movements such as bodybuilders, powerlifters and sprinters.
  • Creatine Monohydrate is perfectly safe and is suitable for anyone taking part in prolonged or high intensity exercise, looking to improve physcial performance and power output.
  • It can be recommended to consume 3-5g of Creatine Monohydrate immediately post work out with a whey protein and carbohydrate blend to maximise absorption and recovery. Creatine monohydrate can be taken post workout or pre workout for maximum strength.

Key Benefits

  •  Ideal for power based sports
  • Can be easily mixed in water
  • Can help improve strength and power
Array

LSD

  • Can benefit those suffering from PTSD, depression and anxiety 
  • LSD is one of the most potent, mood changing chemicals. It is manufactured from lysergic acid, which is found in the ergot fungus that grows on rye and other grains.
  • It is produced in crystal form in illegal laboratories, These crystals are converted to a liquid for distribution. It is odorless, colorless, and has a slightly bitter taste. Known as “acid” and by many other names, LSD is sold on the street in small tablets (microdots), capsules or gelatin squares (window panes). It is sometimes added to absorbent paper, which is then divided into small squares decorated with designs or cartoon characters (loony toons). Occasionally it is sold in liquid form. But no matter what form it comes in, LSD leads the user to the same placea serious disconnection from reality.
  • LSD users call an LSD experience a trip, typically lasting twelve hours or so. When things go wrong, which often happens, it is called a “bad trip,” another name for a living hell.
  • LSD can cause pupil dilation, reduced appetite, and wakefulness. Other physical reactions to LSD are highly variable and nonspecific, some of which may be secondary to the psychological effects of LSD. Among the reported symptoms are numbness, weakness, nausea, hypothermia or hyperthermia, elevated blood sugar, goose bumps, heart rate increase, jaw clenching, perspiration, saliva production, mucus production, sleeplessness, hyperreflexia, and tremors.medical citation needed
  • LSD's psychological effects (colloquially called a "trip") vary greatly between persons and places. If the user is in a hostile or otherwise unsettling environment, or is not mentally prepared for the powerful distortions in perception and thought that the drug causes, effects are more likely to be unpleasant than if he or she is in a comfortable environment and has a relaxed, balanced and open mindset.medical citation needed
  • An LSD trip can have long term psychological or emotional effects; some userswho? report the LSD experience as causing significant long term changes in their personality and life perspective. Widely different effects emerge based on what is called set and setting; the "set" being the general mindset of the user, and the "setting" being the physical and social environment in which the drug's effects are experienced. Some psychological effects may include a sense that one's thoughts are spiraling into themselves and a loss of a sense of identity or the ego known as "ego death". Many users experience a dissolution between themselves and the "outside world" This unitive quality may play a role in the spiritual and religious aspects of LSD. The drug sometimes leads to disintegration or restructuring of the user's historical personality and creates a mental state that some users weaselwords report allows them to have more choice regarding the nature of their own personality.
  • Some sensory effects may include an experience of radiant colors, objects and surfaces appearing to ripple or "breathe", colored patterns behind the closed eyelids (eidetic imagery), an altered sense of time (time seems to be stretching, repeating itself, changing speed or stopping), crawling geometric patterns overlaying walls and other objects, and morphing objects. Some users, report a strong metallic taste for the duration of the effects.
  • LSD causes an animated sensory experience of senses, emotions, memories, time, and awareness for 6 to 14 hours, depending on dosage and tolerance. Generally beginning within 30 to 90 minutes after ingestion, the user may experience anything from subtle changes in perception to overwhelming cognitive shifts. Changes in auditory and visual perception are typical. Visual effects include the illusion of movement of static surfaces ("walls breathing"), after image like trails of moving objects tracers, the appearance of moving colored geometric patterns (especially with closed eyes), an intensification of colors and brightness ("sparkling"), new textures on objects, blurred vision, and shape suggestibility. Users commonly report weasel words that the inanimate world appears to animate in an inexplicable way; for instance, objects that are static in three dimensions can seem to be moving relative to one or more additional spatial dimensions. Many of the basic visual effects resemble the phosphenes seen after applying pressure to the eye and have also been studied under the name "form constants". The auditory effects of LSD may include echo like distortions of sounds, changes in ability to discern concurrent auditory stimuli, and a general intensification of the experience of music. Higher doses often cause intense and fundamental distortions of sensory perception such as synaesthesia, the experience of additional spatial or temporal dimensions, and temporary dissociation.
Array

Melatonin

Melatonin Promotes Healthy Sleep Patterns In numerous studies, Melatonin was shown to:

  • Treat insomnia
  • Enhance sleep quality
  • Fight jet lag symptoms
  • Slow the ageing process
  • Relieve symptoms of SAD (Seasonal Affective Disorder)
  • Decrease ocular pressure
  • May prevent Parkinson’s Disease

Melatonin is the hormone responsible for regulating the body’s biological clock. It is produced by the pineal gland, which is located in the brain. Melatonin helps to regulate sleep. During daylight, the pineal gland in the brain produces the neurotransmitter serotonin, but at night, the pineal gland stops producing serotonin and instead makes melatonin. This melatonin release helps trigger sleep.

  •  Insomnia:The ability to fall asleep and stay asleep may get a boost from melatonin supplementation. Some studies of young and elderly adults have shown that taking a small amount of melatonin before bedtime helps to both hasten sleep and improve its quality. These benefits were seen in insomniacs as well as in individuals who struggle with only occasional sleep problems.
  • Sleep problems caused by pain or stress: Frequent night-time awakenings can occur as a result of chronic pain or stress. In such situations, melatonin may help by encouraging sounder slumber.
  • Jet lag: If you're working a night shift or are traveling across time zones, melatonin supplements may help your body to overcome any disorientation and quickly reestablish a normal sleep pattern. Recent studies of airline personnel and others who travel long distances found that melatonin supplements significantly relieved jet lag symptoms. This was true regardless of whether they were flying eastbound or westbound. However, not all studies have found melatonin to be superior to a placebo for such jet lag symptoms as fatigue, daytime sleepiness and impaired alertness.
  • Anti-Ageing: Animal research indicates that melatonin may be of value in extending life--elderly mice administered the supplement lived 25% longer than their cohorts in one study--although much more investigation is needed before firm conclusions can be made about its value for humans in this regard. Melatonin's antioxidant properties may help to stave off illnesses commonly related to ageing, such as heart disease and cataracts. The hormone may boost immune-system function as well, which can weaken with age.
  • SAD-related depression: A number of people who feel quite normal and energetic in summer become depressed and sluggish in winter, when sunlight is weaker and less abundant. Low melatonin levels may also be present in individuals who react in this way. According to a handful of preliminary studies, such individuals are said to be suffering from SAD (seasonal affective disorder) and may experience a significant improvement in mood if they take several tiny doses (0.1 mg) of melatonin in the afternoon. Study participants who failed to improve took either a large single dose in the morning or no melatonin at all. More studies are needed in this area.
  • Ocular Pressure: Taken in small amounts, Melatonin has been shown to lower pressure in the eyes. Since studies have only been done on healthy eyes, it is uncertain whether melatonin would be an effective treatment for glaucoma.
  • Parkinson’s Disease: Low melatonin levels may cause the failure of neurotransmitters, leading to Parkinson’s Disease. Supplementation may prevent this from occurring.

It is largely thought that as people age, their bodies produce less melatonin. Deficiencies can lead to insomnia. The production of melatonin varies according to the amount of light you're exposed to more melatonin is produced at night than during the day, and your body produces more melatonin in a completely dark room than in a dimly lit one.

  • Stress, illness, and ageing are the culprits that can speed up this deficiency in Melatonin. Recent research has shown that Melatonin is one of the most powerful antioxidants. The problem of insomnia is helped significantly with Melatonin intake. Most people report a calm deep sleep; some report more dreams and also a good nights rest.
Array

GPC

  • GPC: The New Choline That Enhances Your Mental Function Now While Helping to Repair Brain Cell Membranes for Long Term Health
  • Improve immediate recall, reaction time, and mood
  • Protect delicate brain cells and membranes
  • Support optimal brain function
  • Help counteract cognitive impairment such as: Alzheimer's disease, brain injuries, stroke, vascular dementia, and Parkinson's disease

GPC: The new choline that enhances cognition in the young, middle aged, and elderly, We are continually learning about how the brain functions, environmental and dietary factors that contribute to brain aging and enhancement and how it's possible to increase your intelligence and sensory perception beyond the predictors of aging, genetics, and IQ tests. Alpha Glycerylphosphorylcholine (GPC), a form of choline, is an exciting nutrient recently developed as a cognitive enhancer. But GPC is not the ordinary form of choline we've been hearing about (or even taking) for years. GPC is a source of phospholipids (the prime building blocks of life) and choline, which is utilized for phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis in the brain, and for the neurotransmitter acetylcholine one of the chemicals that enable brain cells to communicate with each other. Although GPC has all the benefits of choline, it is much more effective at increasing acetylcholine and phosphatidylcholine production.

  • Acetylcholine is essential for cognitive function, and is responsible for storing and recalling memories. It is vital for communication between neurons, and in two Italian studies supplementation with GPC indicated an increase in brain function directly related to a healthy supply of acetylcholine.
  • In the two controlled trials, daily doses of 1200 mg of GPC improved the immediate recall and attention in a group of young adult males (ages 19-38) compared with a placebo.12 In middle-aged and elderly subjects, GPC supplementation improved reaction time by supporting energy generation and electrical coordination in the brain.34
  • In studies of older patients with vascular dementia, 1200 mg per day of GPC helped improve cognition, as well as emotional state, confusion, and apathy.5

Why is choline important to brain functioning?

Choline is the important B vitamin that fuels tissue renewal and helps build acetylcholine. It is so vital to thought and nerve function that, without it, we couldn't move, think, sleep or remember anything. Choline is also responsible for synthesizing phosphatidylcholine (PC), a component of the membrane of every cell in your body, including brain cells. In addition to its role as a structural element in cell membranes, PC acts as a choline reservoir for synthesizing more acetylcholine when needed. Because phosphatidylcholine is a common component of cell membranes, it is distributed throughout the body. Also, as we age, choline levels decline and it is unable to get into the brain efficiently. For years, lecithin was a popular supplement thought to supply choline, but a review of randomized trials did not find lecithin to be more beneficial than placebo in the treatment of patients with dementia or cognitive impairment.

  • GPC is a "next generation" supplement that effectively supplies choline, stimulates membrane repair and benefits cognitive function.
  • GPC has been proven extremely effective, both in the elderly for brain decline linked to poor circulation and Alzheimer's disease, and for enhancing mental performance in healthy young adults.

GPC has been shown to:

  • Help brain recovery following injury, coma, and surgery
  • Improve memory and cognitive performance in patients with Alzheimer's dementia
  • Improve memory and learning ability in laboratory animals Counteract brain aging in rats by increasing cholinergic receptor sites,1415 restoring the bioavailability of acetylcholine, increasing nerve growth factor receptors in the brain, and slowing down undesirable structural changes in the brain
  • Counter the age related loss of nerve cells and fibers in the brain
  • Protect the brain and other organs against toxic waste buildup
  • Increase growth hormone secretion in both the young and the old
  • Support patients recovering from cerebral ischemic attacks23
  • Increase the release of dopamine, the neurotransmitter that plays a major role in Parkinson's disease

How does GPC work?

GPC is water soluble and after it is ingested it quickly enters the brain, where it protects neurons and improves signal transmission, and supports brain function and learning processes by directly increasing the synthesis and secretion of acetylcholine, as your body needs it. Instead of being a precursor to phosphatidylcholine (PC), GPC is actually a metabolite of PC. In other words, after phosphatidylcholine is metabolized and stripped of its fatty acids, GPC a glycerin molecule bound to phosphocholineis what remains. This is a source of choline in the same form that a cell would obtain from scavenging its own membranes. And this is exactly the form of choline that neurons prefer to use for synthesizing acetylcholine during times of choline scarcity.

Also, GPC is very good at repairing and maintaining brain cell membranes. What most people don't understand is that a cell membrane is living fluid. If you were able to watch the activity in a cell membrane in real time, it would be like watching a fireworks display with a million things happening at once. Neurotransmitters are released through the membrane, which needs to be instantly repaired. As we age, the mechanism that allows the membrane to be repaired becomes compromised, which is another reason to take GPC as a nutritional supplement.

Array

Marijuana

forget the flapjacks and proetins bars special triathon day browness are a hit with ultra runners across the pond, as the drugs proven pain disminishing effects and help them last the distance trial blazing.

  • If you’ve ever smoked a joint or eaten a pot laced brownie, you’re hardly alone: More than 1 in 3 people  have tried marijuana at one point in their lives. Though occasional use isn’t usually harmful, pot can affect your body and mind any time it gets into your system. Here’s what you need to know.

Marijuana comes from the hemp plant Cannabis sativa. It has an active ingredient called THC that makes you feel high. THC and other compounds in marijuana can also affect the way your body works.

  • Most people smoke the plant's dried leaves, flowers, stems, and seeds. But marijuana can also be mixed into food (like brownies, cookies, and lollipops), brewed as a tea, or inhaled with a vaporizer.

No matter how it gets into your system, it affects almost every organ in your body, and your nervous system and immune system, too. When you smoke pot, your body absorbs THC right away. If you eat a baked good or another item, it may take much longer for your body to absorb THC, because it has to break down in your stomach before it enters your bloodstream You may notice changes in your body right after you smoke. The effects usually stop after 3 or 4 hours.

  • Smoking pot can increase your heart rate by as much as two times for up to 3 hours. That’s why some people have a heart attack right after they use marijuana. It can increase bleeding, lower blood pressure, and affect your blood sugar, too.
  • We don’t yet know if marijuana is linked to higher odds of getting lung cancer. But the process does irritate your lungs  which is why regular pot smokers are more likely to have an ongoing cough and to have lung related health problems like chest colds and lung infections.

Other physical effects of marijuana include:

  • Dizziness
  • Shallow breathing
  • Red eyes and dilated pupils
  • Dry mouth
  • Increased appetite

Slowed reaction time (If you drive after using marijuana, your risk of being in a car accident more than doubles.)
If you’re a long time user, you can have physical withdrawal symptoms like cravings, irritability, sleeplessness, and less appetite when you stop.

What is Marijuana?

Marijuana is a green, brown or gray mixture of dried, shredded leaves, stems, seeds and flowers of the hemp plant Cannabis sativa. Marijuana is used as a psychoactive (i.e. mind altering) recreational drug, for certain medical ailments and for religious and spiritual purposes. Sinsemilla, hash/hashish (resinous form) and hash oil (sticky black liquid) are stronger forms of marijuana.

  • Cannabis has is used to reduce nausea and vomiting during chemotherapy, to improve appetitie in people with HIV/AIDS, to treat chronic pain, and help with muscle spasms. Its use for other medical applications is insufficient for conclusions about safety or efficacy. Short-term use increases minor adverse effects, but does not appear to increase major adverse effects. Long-term effects of cannabis are not clear, and there are concerns including memory and cognition problems, risk for addiction, risk of schizophrenia among young people, and the risk of children taking it by accident.

The medicinal value of cannabis is disputed. The American Society of Addiction Medicine dismisses medical use because of concerns about dependence and adverse health effects,  cannabis is associated with numerous harmful health effects, and that significant aspects such as content, production, and supply are unregulated. The FDA approves of the prescription of two products (not for smoking) that have pure THC in a small controlled dose as the active substance.

How does Marijuana work?

The main active chemical in marijuana is THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol). It is a psychoactive ingredient. The highest concentrations of THC are found in the leaves and flowers. When marijuana smoke is inhaled, THC rapidly passes from the lungs into the bloodstream and is carried to the brain and other organs throughout the body. THC from the marijuana acts on specific receptors in the brain, called cannabinoid receptors, starting off a chain of cellular reactions that finally lead to the euphoria, or "high" that users experience. Certain areas in the brain, such as the hippocampus, the cerebellum, the basal ganglia and the cerebral cortex, have a higher concentration of cannabinoid receptors. These areas influence memory, concentration, pleasure, coordination, sensory and time perception. Therefore these functions are most adversely affected by marijuana use.

  • Marijuana's strength is correlated to the amount of THC it contains and the effects on the user depend on the strength or potency of the THC. The THC content in marijuana has been increasing since the 1970s. For the year 2007, estimates from confiscated marijuana indicated that it contains almost 10 percent THC on average. There are many other chemicals found in marijuana, many of which may adversely affect health.2 Marijuana contains over 60 different cannabinoid compounds related to THC, including cannabidiol, cannabinol, and ß-caryophyllene.
  • Marijuana is usually smoked as a cigarette (called a joint or a nail) or in a pipe or bong. In recent years, it has appeared in blunts, which are cigars that have been emptied of tobacco and refilled with marijuana, often in combination with another drug, such as crack. The “blunts” retain tobacco leaf used to wrap the cigar and therefore it combines marijuana's active ingredients with nicotine and other harmful chemicals. Some users also mix marijuana into food or use it to brew tea.
Array

Propecia

  • Used to aid hair growth these pills also raise testosterone and cut fat and you may need one too.
  • Propecia prevents the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in the body.
  • Propecia is used for the treatment of male pattern hair loss on the vertex and the anterior mid scalp area. Male pattern hair loss is a common condition in which men experience thinning of the hair on the scalp. Often, this results in a receding hairline and or balding on the top of the head. Propecia is for use by men only and should not be used by women or children.

Important information

  • Propecia should never be taken by a woman or a child. Finasteride can be absorbed through the skin, and women or children should not be permitted to handle Propecia tablets.
  • Although Propecia is not for use by women, this medication can cause birth defects if a woman is exposed to it during pregnancy. Propecia tablets should not be handled by a woman who is pregnant or who may become pregnant. Propecia tablets are coated and will prevent contact with the active ingredient during normal handling, provided that the tablets are not broken or crushed. If a woman accidentally comes into contact with this medication from a broken or crushed tablet, wash the area with soap and water right away.

Before taking Propecia, tell your doctor if you have ever had an allergic reaction to finasteride, or to a similar medicine called dutasteride Avodart).

  • Using Propecia may increase your risk of developing prostate cancer. Your doctor will perform tests to make sure you do not have other conditions that would prevent you from safely using Propecia.
  • Call your doctor at once if you notice any breast lumps, pain, nipple discharge, or other breast changes. These may be signs of male breast cancer.

To make sure you can safely take Propecia, tell your doctor if you have any of these other conditions:

  • liver disease, or abnormal liver enzyme tests;
  • prostate cancer;
  • a bladder muscle disorder;
  • stricture of your urethra;
  • if you are unable to urinate; or
  • if you have ever had an allergic reaction to a similar medicine called dutasteride (Avodart).

How should I take Propecia?

  • Take Propecia exactly as prescribed by your doctor. Do not take it in larger amounts or for longer than recommended. Follow the directions on your prescription label.
  • Take this medicine with a full glass of water.
  • Propecia can be taken with or without food. Take the medicine at the same time each day.

It is important to use Propecia regularly to get the most benefit. You may need to take Propecia daily for three months or more before you see a benefit. Propecia can only work over the long term if you continue taking it. If the drug has not worked for you in twelve months, further treatment is unlikely to be of benefit. If you stop taking Propecia, you will likely lose the hair you have gained within 12 months of stopping treatment. You should discuss this with your doctor.

To be sure this medication is helping your condition and not causing harmful effects, your blood may need to be tested often. Your doctor will also test your prostate specific antigen (PSA) to check for prostate cancer. Visit your doctor regularly

Less serious Propecia side effects may include:

  • impotence, loss of interest in sex, or trouble having an orgasm;
  • abnormal ejaculation;
  • swelling in your hands or feet;
  • swelling or tenderness in your breasts;
  • dizziness, weakness;
  • feeling like you might pass out; headache;runny nose; or skin rash.
  • The sexual side effects of Propecia (decreased libido, trouble having an erection, ejaculation problems) may continue after you stop taking this medication. Talk to your doctor if you have concerns about these side effects.
Array

Agmatine

  • Agmatine is formed in the brain by the decarboxylation of arginine. That means that the body breaks off the carboxyl group on the arginine molecule. There are lots of important decarboxylation reactions in the body including histidine to histamine and 5-HTP to serotonin. Besides being stored in the brain, agmatine is also stored in selected neurons throughout the body.

As I mentioned before, nitric oxide is an incredibly beneficial molecule, however iNOS activity increases nitric oxide in the immune cells, and if the body isn’t fighting infection, this excess nitric oxide can lead to chronic inflammation. nNOS increases nitric oxide in the neuronal tissue, where an excess of the molecule can actually inhibit growth and repair. This is obviously not wanted, especially in stroke patients. Numerous studies have shown that agmatine will actually inhibit the activity of those to NOS enzymes so that they don’t over produce nitric oxide in places we don’t necessarily want it. Here is a recent study discussing the effect.

  • The most amazing thing in that study, in my opinion, is that while agmatine inhibited iNOS and nNOS activity, it STIMULATED eNOS activity, protecting and even expanding the blood vessels in the brains of the study subjects.

“These observations prompted us to think that overproduction of NO from eNOS protects brain tissue by maintaining regional cerebral blood flow; however, NO production from either nNOs or iNOS leads to neurotoxicity. Thereafter, agmatine may reduce cerebral ischemia injury by inhibiting the detrimental effects of both iNOS and nNOS.

  • Of course the big question is, does supplementing with agmatine actually increase agmatine in the body? Studies seem to indicate that there is a pathway for gastrointestinal uptake of agmatine, at least in rats. If the reviews on nutritional supplement sites are to be believed, there is strong anecdotal evidence that agmatine supplementation works for humans too. It has been reported to increase blood flow and the pump one feels when doing resistance exercises
  • It is also reported to be an effective pain fighter and may be a driver of lutenizing hormone (LH) which your body needs to produce its most anabolic hormone, testosterone. Furthermore, besides the neuro-protective benefits of agmatine, it also appears to act as a modulator of mental stress.

So for incredible pumps, improved blood flow, targeted increases in nitric oxide, increases in testosterone, creating an anabolic environment in which to grow stronger and increase endurance, and a general feeling of well being, agmatine may be just what you are looking for. Now you can see why I think that agmatine might be the best nitric oxide booster on the market.

  • Agmatine is a main ingredient in both Hemavol and Jack3d Micro. Check out my reviews of these products here. You can find these products and others agmatine nitric oxide supplements at Vitamin Shop

Array

Tyrosine

  • the amino acid raises focus by bolstering energy hormones like adrenaline and dopamine the us military used in soldiers Seal of approval 

Tyrosine (abbreviated as Tyr o hydroxyphenylalanine, is one of the 22 amino acids that are used by cells to synthesize proteins. Its codons are UAC and UAU. It is a non-essential amino acid with a polar side group. The word "tyrosine" is from the Greek tyros, meaning cheese, as it was first discovered in 1846 by German chemist Justus von Liebig in the protein casein from cheese.  It is called tyrosyl when referred to as a functional group or side chain

Tyrosine is a precursor to neurotransmitters and increases plasma neurotransmitter levels (particularly dopamine and norepinephrine)  but has little if any effect on mood. The effect on mood is more noticeable in humans subjected to stressful conditions .

A number of studies have found tyrosine to be useful during conditions of stress, cold, fatigue, loss of a loved one such as in death or divorce, prolonged work and sleep deprivation, with reductions in stress hormone levels, reductions in stress-induced weight loss seen in animal trials, improvements in cognitive and physical performance seen in human trials; however, because tyrosine hydroxylase is the rate-limiting enzyme, effects are less significant than those of L-DOPA.

Tyrosine does not seem to have any significant effect on mood, cognitive or physical performance in normal circumstances.A daily dosage for a clinical test supported in the literature is about 100 mg/kg for an adult, which amounts to about 6.8 grams at 150 lbs. The usual dosage amounts to 500–1500 mg per day (dose suggested by most manufacturers; usually an equivalent to 1–3 capsules of pure tyrosine). It is not recommended to exceed 12000 mg (12 g) per day.

Aside from being a proteinogenic amino acid, tyrosine has a special role by virtue of the phenol functionality. It occurs in proteins that are part of signal transduction processes. It functions as a receiver of phosphate groups that are transferred by way of protein kinases (so-called receptor tyrosine kinases). Phosphorylation of the hydroxyl group changes the activity of the target protein.

A tyrosine residue also plays an important role in photosynthesis. In chloroplasts (photosystem II), it acts as an electron donor in the reduction of oxidized chlorophyll. In this process, it undergoes deprotonation of its phenolic OH-group. This radical is subsequently reduced in the photosystem II by the four core manganese clusters.

Tyrosine, which can also be synthesized in the body from phenylalanine, is found in many high-protein food products such as chicken, turkey, fish, milk, yogurt, cottage cheese, cheese, peanuts, almonds, pumpkin seeds, sesame seeds, soy products, lima beans, avocados, and bananas.

Array

Caffeine

  • Caffeine is classified by the Food and Drug Administration as "generally recognized as safe" (GRAS). Toxic doses, over 10 grams per day for an adult, are much higher than typical dose of under 500 milligrams per day. A cup of coffee contains 80–175 mg of caffeine, depending on what "bean" (seed) is used and how it is prepared (e.g. drip, percolation, or espresso). Thus it requires roughly 50–100 ordinary cups of coffee to reach a lethal dose. However pure powdered caffeine, which is widely available as a dietary supplement, can be lethal in tablespoon-sized amounts. There are several known mechanisms of action to explain the effects of caffeine. The most prominent is to reversibly block the action of adenosine on its receptor, which blocks the onset of drowsiness induced by adenosine. Caffeine also stimulates selected portions of the autonomic nervous system.
  • Caffeine can have both positive and negative health effects. It can be used to treat bronchopulmonary dysplasia of prematurity, and to prevent apnea of prematurity: caffeine citrate was placed on the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines in 2007.  It may confer a modest protective effect against some diseases, including Parkinson's disease and certain types of cancer. One meta-analysis concluded that cardiovascular disease such as coronary artery disease and stroke is less likely with 3–5 cups of non-decaffeinated coffee per day but more likely with over 5 cups per day. Some people experience insomnia or sleep disruption if they consume caffeine, especially during the evening hours, but others show little disturbance. Evidence of a risk during pregnancy is equivocal; some authorities recommend that pregnant women limit consumption to the equivalent of two cups of coffee per day or less. Whether or not caffeine is an addictive drug depends on how an addiction is defined. It can produce a mild form of drug dependence associated with withdrawal symptoms such as sleepiness, headache, and irritability, when an individual stops using caffeine after repeated daily intake. Tolerance to the autonomic effects of increased blood pressure and heart rate, and increased urine output, develops with chronic use (i.e., these symptoms become less pronounced or do not occur following consistent use).

Caffeine confers a survival advantage on the plant containing it in three ways.

  • First, if it is ingested by an insect feeding on and potentially damaging or killing the plant, caffeine functions as a natural pesticide which can paralyze and kill the insect.
  • Second, droppings from the plant infuse the surrounding soil with caffeine, which can inhibit the growth of and kill competing seedlings (and potentially its own progeny and itself).
  • Third, caffeine can enhance the reward memory of pollinators such as honey bees, thus increasing the numbers of its progeny.

Caffeine is used in

  • bronchopulmonary dysplasia in premature infants for both prevention and treatment. It may improve weight gain during therapy and reduce the incidence of cerebral palsy as well as reduce language and cognitive delay. On the other hand, subtle long-term side effects are possible.
  • apnea of prematurity as a primary treatment, but not prevention.
  • orthostatic hypotension treatment.
  • Enhancing performance
  • Caffeine is a central nervous system and metabolic stimulant, and is used to reduce physical fatigue and to prevent or treat drowsiness. It produces increased wakefulness, faster and clearer flow of thought, increased focus, and better general body coordination. The amount of caffeine needed to produce these effects varies from person to person, depending on body size and degree of tolerance. Desired effects begin less than an hour after consumption, and a moderate dose usually subsides in about five hours.
  • Caffeine has the desired effect of delaying/preventing sleep, but does not affect all people in the same way. It also improves performance during sleep deprivation. In shift workers it leads to fewer mistakes caused by drowsiness.
  • In athletes, moderate doses of caffeine can improve sprint, endurance, and team sports performance, but the improvements are usually not substantial. Some evidence suggests that coffee does not produce the performance enhancing effects observed in other caffeine sources.

Tablets

  • Tablets offer the advantages over coffee and tea of convenience, known dosage, and avoiding concomitant fluid intake. Manufacturers of caffeine tablets claim that using caffeine of pharmaceutical quality improves mental alertness. These tablets are commonly used by students studying for their exams and by people who work or drive for long hours.
Array

Yohimbe

  • Yohimbe is the name of an evergreen tree that is found in Zaire, Cameroon, and Gabon. The bark of yohimbe contains a chemical called yohimbine, which is used to make medicine.
  • Yohimbe is used to arouse sexual excitement, for erectile dysfunction (ED), sexual problems caused by medications for depression called selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and general sexual problems in both men and women. It is also used for athletic performance, weight loss, exhaustion, chest pain, high blood pressure, low blood pressure that occurs when standing up, diabetic nerve pain, and for depression along with certain other medications.

How does it work?

Yohimbe contains a chemical called yohimbine which can increase blood flow and nerve impulses to the penis or vagina. It also helps counteract the sexual side effects of certain medications used for depression. Studies show it is effective in 30-40% of men with impotence. It is primarily effective in men with impotence caused by vascular, psychogenic, or diabetic problems. It usually does not work in men whose impotence is caused by organic nerve damage. In men without erectile dysfunction, yohimbe in some cases appears to increase sexual stamina and prolong erections.

Yohimbe is also used for weight loss, although not to the extent it is used for treating impotence. Some alternative health practitioners believe it is more effective and safer than the stimulant ephedra (also known as ma huang ) in achieving weight loss. Yohimbe is often prescribed for weight loss by natural health practitioners at Bastyr University in Kenmore, Washington. "It's my number one choice for weight loss," Lise Alschuler, medical director of the school's natural health clinic, said in a January 1998 article in Vegetarian Times. "I prescribe it in very small doses and slowly increase intake while monitoring patients' tolerance levels." Dosing starts at 1 mg of yohimbine three times a day.

Array

Saw Palmetto

Saw palmetto berries have been used for many years as a herbal treatment for symptoms of an enlarged prostate, a common condition in men over 50 also known as benign prostatic hyperplasia or BPH.BPH most commonly manifests itself with bladder symptoms  frequent urination, a need to urinate at night, poor urine flow and dribbling. and help reduce enlarged prostate or prostatic hypertrophy.

American Indians used the fruit of Serenoa repens for food and to maintain healthy urinary and reproductive system. Saw Palmetto is used for preventing certain types of prostate infections. Some people use it for colds, coughs, sore throat, asthma, chronic bronchitis, chronic pelvic pain syndrome, and migraine.

Array

Paracetamol

  • Paracetamol also known as acetaminophen Listeni or APAP, chemically named N-acetyl-p-aminophenol, is a widely used over the counter analgesic or pain reliever and antipyretic fever reducer.
  • Paracetamol is classified as a mild analgesic. It is commonly used for the relief of headaches and other minor aches and pains and is a major ingredient in numerous cold and flu remedies. In combination with opioid analgesics, paracetamol can also be used in the management of more severe pain such as post-surgical and cancer pain. Though paracetamol is used to treat inflammatory pain, it is not generally classified as an NSAID because it exhibits only weak anti-inflammatory activity
  • Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is a pain reliever and a fever reducer. The exact mechanism of action of is not known.
  • Paracetamol is used to treat many conditions such as headache, muscle aches, arthritis, backache, toothaches, colds, and fevers. It relieves pain in mild arthritis but has no effect on the underlying inflammation and swelling of the joint.

Important information

  • There are many brands and forms of paracetamol available and not all brands are listed on this leaflet.
  • Do not use more of this medication than is recommended. An overdose of paracetamol can cause serious harm. The maximum amount of paracetamol for adults is 1 gram (1000 mg) per dose and 4 grams (4000 mg) per day. Taking more paracetamol could cause damage to your liver. If you drink more than three alcoholic beverages per day, talk to your doctor before taking paracetamol and never use more than 2 grams (2000 mg) per day.
  • Do not use this medication without first talking to your doctor if you drink more than three alcoholic beverages per day or if you have had alcoholic liver disease (cirrhosis). You may not be able to use paracetamol .
  • Before using paracetamol , tell your doctor if you have liver disease or a history of alcoholism.
  • Do not use any other over the counter cough, cold, allergy, or pain medication without first asking your doctor or pharmacist. Paracetamol is contained in many combination medicines. If you use certain products together you may accidentally use too much paracetamol . Read the label of any other medicine you are using to see if it contains paracetamol, acetaminophen or APAP. Avoid drinking alcohol while taking this medication. Alcohol may increase your risk of liver damage while taking paracetamol .